Tiny amounts of the food in question are often enough to trigger an allergic reaction.
In surveys, 20% of the Swiss population claim to be allergic to foods. However, the proven level is only 2–6%. Most commonly infants develop food allergies, build up tolerance as they get older and often are able to tolerate the foods again.
Triggers of food allergies
A food allergy is based on an immune reaction by the body to harmless vegetable or animal proteins (allergens). The IgE antibodies trigger an allergic reaction with every contact – often tiny amounts of the food in question are enough.
Symptoms of food allergies
Common and harmless reactions become noticeable in the mouth area: itching of the lips and throat, a furry feeling in the mouth and palate, swelling of the lips and tongue, the lining of the cheeks and throat immediately after eating the food. These symptoms are combined under the heading of “oral allergy syndrome”. Other possible reactions: vomiting, stomach or abdominal cramps, diarrhoea. Skin reactions (eczema, urticaria), asthma attacks through to anaphylactic shock are other possible symptoms.
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
Self-monitoring, ideally recorded in a “symptom diary” and the results of skin test and blood tests form the essential foundation of the diagnosis of a food allergy. In addition, provocation (or challenge) tests may become necessary. Allergy tests can be carried out in babies over the age of 6 months.
Differential diagnoses: Food intolerances
Therapy and treatment
Strict abstinence is important, i.e. eliminating the allergy-causing food from a person’s diet. It is also essential to watch for concealed sources in bakery products, sausage, spice blends and semi-cooked and ready foods. The ingredients list under Swiss legislation details allergenic ingredients which must compulsorily be declared even if they are only added in minute quantities (e.g. as an additive) or are constituents of an ingredient (e.g. in the case of spice blends) www.admin.ch (Food Labelling Ordinance PDF, page 8, article 8 / annex 1, page 33)
Anyone who has already suffered a severe allergic reaction should always carry an emergency medical ID card and an emergency kit. If a new, severe allergic reaction occurs, an emergency doctor or a hospital should be consulted. SOS capsules are not very well-known in Switzerland, but they can be helpful.
Tips and tricks
- Write the allergy-causing foods on a “visiting card” and hand it to the restaurant when ordering your meal. Before holidays, have these cards translated into the local language and take them with you. When invited round to friends and family, either tell the hosts exactly about your allergy or offer to take something allergen-free with you.
- Check lists of ingredients of familiar foods before buying. The recipes can be changed at any time. If you are not sure, the manufacturers or wholesalers will be glad to provide information. Their contact details can be found on the packaging.
Facts and figures
Adults are most commonly allergic to hazelnuts, celery, apples, walnuts and kiwi fruits. Particularly severe allergic reactions are triggered by peanuts, seafood or kernels and sesame seeds. Cross-reactions between birch pollen and raw stone and pip fruit are common, but can often occur between mites and seafood as well as latex and exotic fruits.
Children typically react to cow’s milk, hen’s eggs, peanuts and other nuts.
aha! Swiss Allergy Centre helps
- aha! keeps a list of HF/FH certified and experienced nutritionists who have qualified and recognized training and have completed advanced training on the subject of food allergies and intolerances. Nutritionists
- aha!shop: Booklets and factsheets provides detailed information and are available in German, French, Italian. The booklet "Allergies – simple to explain" and the questionnaire "Do I have an allergy" is available in English
- Experts on the aha!infoline will be happy to answer personal queries: Monday to Friday, 08.30–12.00.
- Products and services awarded the Swiss Allergy Label – an added benefit for sufferers.
- aha!kinderlager for children with allergies aged between 8 and 12 years: holidays full of variety with lots of sports, play and fitness. Under expert supervision, children learn to deal better with their allergies and/or asthma.
- aha!jugendcamp for youngsters aged between 13 and 16 years: a broad range of sports and leisure activities, skilled leaders tackle aspects of allergic diseases in adolescence.
- Education and courses on the subjects "Allergy, asthma, chronic bronchitis", "Anaphylaxis" and "Neurodermatitis"
- We value your opinion. Or would you like to exchange experiences with other sufferers? Find out more in german under "Advice and exchange"
- Your donation will enable us to provide important services to people with allergies, asthma and neurodermatitis. Many thanks. Your support will be put to effective use.