Wasps can be really troublesome in late summer and autumn – even for non-allergy sufferers. Sensitised people should always carry an emergency kit with them.
Insect venom allergies are mainly triggered by bee and wasp stings. Stings in the mouth and throat area can even cause life-threatening swelling for non-allergic people. Annually there are three or four fatalities across Switzerland. Wasp venom allergy is not hereditary.
Causes and triggers of wasp venom allergy
Symptoms of wasp venom allergy
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
Therapy and treatment
Tips and tricks
Facts and figures
A serious allergic reaction – act correctly in an emergency
Wasp stings mainly happen in late summer and autumn. Unlike bees, wasps retain their stinger after stinging, which means they can sting several times. Hornets are larger and belong to the same family as wasps.
The symptoms of an allergic reaction to a wasp sting appear within minutes but not later than one hour after the sting. The symptoms can be many and varied: from local swelling to itching, urticaria, vomiting through to shortness of breath, palpitations, a drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse (anaphylaxis).
The diagnosis is based on thorough history-taking with the aid of skin and blood tests. Specific IgE antibodies to Hymenoptera toxins can be identified in the blood by various tests. However, these should be done no earlier than three weeks after the sting.
The same symptoms as with an insect sting can also occur with a food allergy.
People who have already had an allergic reaction to a wasp sting should be told about the risk from being stung again. They are given an emergency kit containing antihistamines, cortisone and possibly an adrenaline prefilled syringe, e.g. EpiPen (handling and shelf life should be checked regularly). Whenever a sufferer is stung, he should take the prescribed medication immediately, even before an allergic reaction develops. If necessary, the adrenaline syringe should also be used.
Desensitisation/specific immunotherapy (SIT) with wasp venom is the only effective causal therapy. The treatment lasts 3–5 years and provides complete protection in 95% of patients.
To avoid wasp stings, observe the following rules:
Essential advice for sufferers from wasp venom allergy: always carry your emergency kit.
In Switzerland 3.5 % of the population suffer from an insect venom allergy.